Kratom Alkaloids: What Makes Mitragyna Speciosa Unique?

kratom alkaloids

Understanding Kratom Alkaloids

According to current studies, there are more than 40 compounds found in Mitragyna Speciosa leaves, including many alkaloids.  Each individual alkaloid has varying active dose ranges and each plant possesses different concentrations of the separate compounds, making each individual Kratom plant unique in its own way.  

The amount of mitragynine (the plants most active alkaloid) found within the leaves depends on many factors, one major factor being the location of the tree itself.  When trees are grown in their native Southeast Asian environments, the levels tend to be higher but when grown elsewhere (even in greenhouses) the levels tend to be much lower.  The unique environment in these parts of the world are assumed to be very important to the quality of the trees and (more importantly) to the quality of the mind and body altering effects that this natural herbal produces.

Aside from location and growing conditions (and quality of course) , the dose is perhaps the next major factor that determines a Kratom users results.  Due to the varied active dose range of the alkaloids and the unbalanced disbursement of said alkaloids, the amount of Kratom that is consumed is very important.  The amount also fluctuates between people due to the aforementioned reasons.

The chemical makeup of the Kratom plant is generally considered to be understudied. Many of the alkaloids have been studied in detail but others are quite unknown still.  Due to the lack of scientific study on the plant itself, there may be alkaloids yet to be discovered that we do not know much about.

Here is a list of some known Kratom alkaloids and their related effects:

Ajmalicine (Raubasine):
Cerebrocirculant, antiaggregant, anti-adrenergic (at alpha-1), sedative, anticonvulsant, smooth muscle relaxer.  Also found in Rauwolfia serpentina.

Akuammigine

Ciliaphylline:
antitussive, analgesic. < 1% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf.

Corynantheidine:
μ -opioid antagonist. < 1% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf.

Corynoxeine:
Calcium channel blocker. < 1% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf.

Corynoxine
A and B: Dopamine mediating anti-locomotives. < 1% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf.

Epicatechin:
Antioxidant, antiaggregant, antibacterial, antidiabetic,antihepatitic, anti-inflammatory, anti-leukemic, antimutagenic, antiperoxidant, antiviral, could potentially help prevent cancer

9-Hydroxycorynantheidine:
Partial opioid agonist

7-hydroxymitragynine:
Analgesic, antitussive, anti diarrheal; primary psychoactive in Kratom; about 2% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf.

Isomitraphylline:
Immunostimulant, anti-leukemic. < 1% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf.

Isomitrafoline:
< 1% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf.

Isopteropodine:
Immunostimulant

Isorhynchophylline:
Immunostimulant. < 1% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf.

Isospeciofoline:
< 1% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf.

Mitraciliatine:
< 1% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf.

Mitragynine:
Indole alkaloid. Analgesic, antitussive, anti diarrheal, adrenergic, antimalarial, possible psychedelic (5-HT2A) antagonist. Roughly 66% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf.

Mitragynine oxindole B.
< 1% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf.

Mitraphylline:
< 1% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf.

Mitraphylline:
Oxindole alkaloid. Vasodilator, antihypertensive, muscle relaxer, diuretic, antiamnesic, anti-leukemic, possible immunostimulant. <1% of total alkaloid contents in Kratom leaf.

Mitraversine

Paynantheine:
Indole alkaloid. Smooth muscle relaxer. 8.6% to 9% of total alkaloid contents in Kratom leaf.

Rhynchophylline:
Vasodilator, antihypertensive, calcium channel blocker, antiaggregant, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anti-arrhythmic, antithelmintic.
< 1% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf.

Speciociliatine:
Weak opioid agonist. 0.8% to 1% of total alkaloid content of Kratom leaf, unique to Kratom

Speciofoline

Speciogynine:
Smooth muscle relaxer. 6.6% to 7% of total alkaloid contents of Kratom leaf.

Speciophylline:
Indole alkaloid. Anti-leukemic. <1% of total alkaloid contents of Kratom leaf.

Stipulatine

Tetrahydroalstonine:
Hypoglycemic, anti-adrenergic (at alpha-2)

Things to keep in mind…

As Kratom continues to be studied, some information could change.  The above findings are not exhaustive but do represent accurate information based on data from several studies.

Common to all plants is that the two most active Kratom alkaloids are mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine.  These two compounds are responsible for most of the effects of Kratom.

Alkaloid content varies between strains and therefore the effects felt also vary.  Alkaloid content also varies between plants based on location, harvesting methods and other environmental and handling reasons.  Due to these realities, it is imperative to use high quality Kratom and to understand proper dosing guidelines.

 

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